Monthly Archives: March 2013

The Herbs of Smoothie Essentials: Whey Protein

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Add a Boost with Whey Protein Blend, featuring Whey Protein

Whey is left over when milk coagulates and contains everything that is soluble from milk. It is a 5% solution of lactose in water, with some minerals and lactalbumin.[1] It is removed after cheese is processed. The fat is removed and then is processed for human foods.[

The use of whey protein as a source of amino acids and its effect on reducing the risks of diseases such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes is the focus of ongoing research.[2] Whey is an abundant source of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs),[3] which are used to fuel working muscles and stimulate protein synthesis.[4] In particular, leucine plays a key role in initiating the transcription of protein synthesis.[5]

[1] “Whey.” The Encyclopædia Britannica. 15th ed. 1994

[2] Xiao R, Carter JA, Linz AL, Ferguson M, Badger TM, Simmen FA (September 2006). “Dietary whey protein lowers serum C-peptide concentration and duodenal SREBP-1c mRNA abundance, and reduces occurrence of duodenal tumors and colon aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-treated male rats”. J. Nutr. Biochem. 17 (9): 626–34. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2005.11.008. PMID 16504496.

[3] Rieu I, Balage M, Sornet C, et al. (April 2007). “Increased availability of leucine with leucine-rich whey proteins improves postprandial muscle protein synthesis in aging rats”. Nutrition 23 (4): 323–31. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2006.12.013. PMID 1736799

[4] Kimball Scott; Jefferson, LS (2006). “Signaling Pathways and Molecular Mechanisms through which Branched-Chain Amino Acids Mediate Translational Control of Protein Synthesis”. Journal of Nutrition 136 (1): 227S–31S. PMID 16365087

[5] Fujita, Dreyer, Drummon, Glynn, cadenas, Et Al. (2007). “Nutrient signalling in the regulation of human muscle protein synthesis”. The Journal of physiology 582 (Pt 2): 813–23. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.134593. PMC 2075348. PMID 17478528

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The Herbs of Smoothie Essentials: Taurine

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Add a Boost with Energy Blend, featuring Taurine

Taurine[1] is a derivative of cysteine, an amino acid which contains a sulfhydryl group. Taurine is one of the few known naturally occurring sulfonic acids. In the strict sense, it is not an amino acid, as it lacks a carboxyl group,[2] but it is often called one, even in scientific literature.[3][4][5]  It does contain a sulfonate group and may be called an amino sulfonic acid. [6]

Taurine is regularly used as an ingredient in energy drinks, with many containing 1000 mg per serving,[7] and some as much as 2000 mg.[8] A 2003 study by the European Food Safety Authority found no adverse effects for up to 1,000 mg of taurine per kilogram of body weight per day.[9]

A review published in 2008 found no documented reports of negative or positive health effects associated with the amount of taurine used in energy drinks, concluding that “The amounts of guarana, taurine, and ginseng found in popular energy drinks are far
below the amounts expected to deliver either therapeutic benefits or adverse events”.[10]

[1]  Natural Health Products Ingredients Database -Taurine:  http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/ingredReq.do?id=1528&lang=eng

[2] Carey, FA (2006). Organic Chemistry (6th ed.).
New York: McGraw Hill. pp. 1149. ISBN 0-07-282837-4. “Amino acids are carboxylic acids that contain
an amine function.”

[3] Stapleton, PP; L O’Flaherty, HP Redmond, and DJ
Bouchier-Hayes (1998). “Host defense–a role for the amino acid taurine?”. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 22 (1): 42–8. doi:10.1177/014860719802200142.
PMID 9437654. http://jpen.aspenjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/22/1/42.

[4]
Weiss, SJ; Klein R, Slivka A, Wei M (1982). “Chlorination of Taurine by
Human Neutrophils”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 70 (3): 598–607.
doi:10.1172/JCI110652. PMC 370261. PMID 6286728

[5] Kirk, K; Kirk, J (1993). “Volume-regulatory
taurine release from a human heart cancer cell line”. FEBS Letters 336
(1): 153–8. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(93)81630-I.
PMID 8262200

[6] Wiki Description – Taurine: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taurine

[7] rockstar69.com Original Rockstar Ingredients

[8] Chang, PL (2008-05-03).  “Nos Energy Drink – Review”. energyfanatics.com. http://energyfanatics.com/2008/05/03/nos-energy-drink-review/.
Retrieved 2010-05-21.

[9] EFSA adopts opinion on two ingredients commonly used in some energy drinks efsa.europa.eu/

[10] Clauson, KA; Shields, KM; McQueen, CE; Persad, N
(2008). “Safety issues associated with commercially available energy
drinks”. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA
48 (3): e55–63; quiz e64–7. doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2008.07055. PMID 18595815

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The Herbs of Smoothie Essentials: Magnesium

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Add a Boost with Women’s Blend, featuring Magnesium

Magnesium is the 11th most abundant element by mass in the human body; its ions are essential to all living cells, where they play a major role in manipulating important biological polyphosphate compounds like ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of enzymes thus require magnesium ions to function.[1]

[1]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium

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